Fat- and Water-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins B and C are water-soluble and move around the body more easily than fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body; you need a continuous supply of them in your diet. When taken in excess, water-soluble vitamins are removed from the body through urine.

Vitamins A, D, E, and K, the fat-soluble vitamins, bind to fat in the stomach and are then stored in fatty tissues and the liver. These vitamins are not excreted readily, and when taken in excess, they can build up in the body and lead to unwanted, and potentially dangerous, adverse effects.

Vitamins and Minerals: What’s the Difference?

Vitamins are made by living things, while minerals are found in the earth. For example, carrots produce beta carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A; minerals, such as iron and copper, can be found in soil and rock. Vitamins are much more delicate than minerals and can break down with heat or age, and they are organic; minerals are inorganic, making their chemical form more simple than that of vitamins.

Whereas all vitamins are needed by the body, only some minerals are required for nutrition. Examples of necessary minerals include calcium, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, and zinc. Minerals and trace elements are mainly found in meat, cereals, fish, milk and dairy foods, vegetables, dried fruit, and nuts. See Table 1 for a comparison of vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin A

One type comes from animal sources of food. It helps you see at night, make red blood cells, and fight off infections. The other type is in plant foods. It helps prevent damage to cells and an eye problem called age-related macular degeneration. (But too much vitamin A can hurt your liver.) Eat orange veggies and fruits like sweet potato and rockmelon, spinach and other greens, dairy foods, and seafood such as shrimp and salmon.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

You could get enough for the day from a good breakfast! It’s added to many fortified breads and grain products and also found naturally in eggs, asparagus and other green veggies, and milk. Your cells need it to work right, and it might help prevent migraines. (It gets its name from the Latin word “flavus” for yellow — a lot of B2 will turn your pee a bright color.)

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

This is a family of compounds that your body needs to turn food into energy and store it. It helps protect your skin and tissues, too, and may improve your cholesterol levels. Three ounces of canned tuna has nearly all you’ll need in a day. Or serve up some chicken, turkey, salmon, or other lean meats. You’re vegan? Eat crimini mushrooms, peanuts, and peanut butter.

Vitamin B6

This vitamin plays a role in more than 100 different reactions in your body. Some research has shown that B6 may help protect against memory loss, colorectal cancer, and PMS. It’s found in many kinds of foods including leafy and root vegetables; non-citrus fruits like bananas, avocados, and watermelon; legumes; and fish, poultry, and lean meat.

Biotin B7

Helps break down protein and carbohydrates. Helps the body make hormones. Peanuts, liver, egg yolks, bananas, mushrooms, watermelon, and grapefruit.

Biotin is a coenzyme and a B vitamin. It is also known as vitamin H. Because biotin is present in so many different kinds of foods, deficiency is rare.

As a supplement, biotin is sometimes used for and may help hepatitis recovery, brittle nails, neuropathy, and other conditions.

Why do people take biotin?

Biotin plays a key role in the body. It supports the health of the skin, nerves, digestive tract, metabolism, and cells. One small study suggested that biotin and other micronutrients helped treat peripheral neuropathy, nerve pain in the extremities that can result from kidney failure or diabetes.

Biotin supplements have been studied as a treatment for a number of conditions. Biotin may decrease insulin resistance and nerve symptoms related to type 2 diabetes. More research needs to be done. Some preliminary evidence suggests that biotin may help strengthen brittle nails.

Inositol B8

Is sometimes referred to as vitamin B8. Inositol supports several biological processes in the body, such as fat metabolism, insulin signaling, and nerve functioning. Inositol is sometimes referred to as the “female health supplement”, as it has been shown to help with female infertility issues.

Vitamin B9 (folic acid)

Can help prevent birth defects of the brain and spine, known as neural tube defects. It is recommended that all women who are capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 mcg per day of folic acid from fortified foods or from dietary supplements. Helps the cells in the body make and maintain DNA; important for the production of red blood cellsLeafy green vegetables, liver, citrus fruits, mushrooms, nuts, peas, dried beans, and wheat bread

Vitamin B12

Rev up before hitting the gym with a snack like a hard-boiled egg or cereal with vitamins added. B12 helps your body break down food for energy. Some athletes and trainers take supplements before workouts, but these don’t really boost your success if you’re getting enough in your meals.

Vitamin C (Known as Ascorbic Acid and Ascorbate)

The body uses vitamin C in many different ways. Vitamin C is needed by the body to form collagen. The body also uses vitamin C to make skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It also uses this vitamin to repair and maintain cartilage, bones and teeth, to heal wounds, form scar tissue and aids in the absorption of iron.
Vitamin C is water-soluble and not stored in your body. In contrast to fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins do not get stored within the body. Instead, the vitamin C that you consume gets transported to your tissues via body fluids, and any extra gets excreted in urine.
One of the important properties of vitamin C is its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity of vitamin C assists many areas in the body. A major cause of cardiovascular disease is oxidative damage including the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. Vitamin C helps to stimulate both the production and function of several types of white blood cells. It also helps your body to produce important antibodies. Vitamin C antioxident mechanism may protect the body against the destructive effects of free radicals. Antioxidants neutralise free radicals by donating one of their own electrons, ending the electron-stealing reaction. The antioxidant nutrients themselves do not become free radicals by donating an electron because they are stable in either form or act as scavengers, helping to prevent cell and tissue damage that could lead to cellular damage and disease. Vitamin C also has role in protecting other vitamins (vitamin A and vitamin E) from the harmful effects of oxidation. Another important function of vitamin C is its role in the synthesis of protein. Vitamin C helps in the synthesis of collagen. Collagen protects our skin from wrinkling and makes our skin firm and strong. Collagen also protects and supports organs and other soft tissues. One of the amino acids used to build collagen—hydroxyproline—is only synthesized when vitamin C is available. Functions of vitamin C on skin. Vitamin C plays a key role in healing wound by the formation of collagen, connective tissue. The new tissue is rebuilt with the help of collagen framework. This function is supported by its co-factor vitamin C. Besides this, vitamin C performs as a strong antioxidant.

Deficiency and Dosage

Vitamin C deficiency is fairly common. Smoking cigarettes can lower the amount of vitamin C in the body, so smokers are more prone to a deficiency, Often, a suggestion of vitamin C supplement to smokers may help prevent or cure a deficiency.

Not getting enough of this vitamin can cause easy bruising, gingivitis and bleeding gums, dry and splitting hair, rough, dry, scaly skin, a decreased wound-healing rate, nosebleeds and a decreased ability to ward off infection.
An extreme lack of vitamin C for long periods of time can cause scurvy. Symptoms of scurvy are skin that bruises easily and joint pain.

Vitamin D

Like calcium, it keeps your bones strong and helps your nerves carry messages. It also plays a role in fighting germs. Careful time in the sun — 10 to 15 minutes on a clear day, without sunscreen — is the best source. Or you could eat fish such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel. There’s a little in egg yolks, too. You can also get milk and sometimes orange juice with added vitamin D.

Vitamin E

It’s something called an antioxidant, which protects your cells from damage caused by cigarette smoke, pollution, sunlight, and more. Vitamin E also helps your cells talk to each other and keeps blood moving. Sunflower seeds and nuts including almonds, hazelnuts, and peanuts are good sources. If you’re allergic to those, vegetable oils (like safflower and sunflower), spinach, and broccoli have vitamin E, too.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble vitamins that play a role in blood clotting, bone metabolism, and regulating blood calcium levels. The body needs vitamin K to produce prothrombin, a protein and clotting factor that is important in blood clotting and bone metabolism.Jan 22, 2018 need it for blood clotting and healthy bones. People who take warfarin, a blood-thinner, have to be careful about what they eat, because vitamin K stops the drug from working. A serving of leafy greens — like spinach, kale, or broccoli — will give you more than enough K for the day. A Japanese dish called natto, made from fermented soybeans, has even more.



L-carnitine is an amino acid that performs three very important functions that enhance athletic performance: L-carnitine is THE nutrient, the “ferry” so to speak, that shuttles fatty acids from the blood into the mitochondria, the energy producing “furnaces” in the cells, so that the fatty acids can be used as energy

(β-hydroxy-γ-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, 3-hydroxy-4-N,N,N-trimethylaminobutyrate) is a quaternary ammonium compound[1] involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants, and some bacteria.[2] Carnitine may exist in two isomers, labeled D-carnitine and L-carnitine, which are both biologically active. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder, and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Carnitine only exists in animals as the L-enantiomer, and D-carnitine is toxic because it inhibits the activity of L-carnitine.[3] Carnitine, derived from an amino acid, is found in nearly all organisms and animal tissue. Carnitine is the generic expression for a number of compounds that include L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and propionyl-L-carnitine. It is most accumulated in cardiac and skeletal muscles as it accounts for 0.1% of its dry matter. It was first derived from meat extracts in 1905, therefore the name carnitine is derived from Latin “carnus” or flesh. The body synthesizes enough carnitine from lysine side chains to keep up with the needs of energy production in the body as carnitine acts as a transporter of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria to be oxidized and produce energy. Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (such as preterm infants) cannot make enough, so this makes carnitine a conditionally essential nutrient for them


This mineral helps concrete harden. Its strength makes it the building block for your bones and teeth. It’s also key to make muscles move, including your heart. Get calcium from milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy foods, and from green vegetables like kale and broccoli. How much you need depends on your age and sex. Check with your doctor about whether you should take a supplement.


You only need a trace amount of this mineral, which is believed to help keep your blood sugar levels steady. Most adults easily get enough by eating foods like broccoli and garlic. You may see chromium supplements that promise to help you lose weight, but there’s no scientific evidence to back up those claims.

Folic Acid

For moms-to-be, it’s a must. It helps make DNA and prevent spina bifida and other brain birth defects. Asparagus, Brussels sprouts, dark leafy greens, oranges and orange juice, and legumes (beans, peas, and lentils) are rich in folic acid. Your doctor may want you to take a supplement, too


Your thyroid uses iodine to make hormones that control metabolism. The first symptom of a deficiency is usually a goiter, a lump in your neck caused by an enlarged thyroid gland. It’s rare in the U.S., largely because iodine is added to table salt. Other top sources include fish and seaweed. Too much iodine can be harmful though, and supplements interact with some medications.


When your levels are low, your body doesn’t make enough healthy red blood cells. And without them, you can’t get oxygen to your tissues. Women who are pregnant or have heavy menstrual cycles are most likely to have anemia, the medical name for when you don’t have enough iron in your blood. Keep up your levels with beans and lentils, liver, oysters, and spinach. Many breakfast cereals have a day’s worth added. Even dark chocolate with at least 45% cacao has some!


This mineral plays a role in making your muscles squeeze and keeping your heart beating. It helps control blood sugar and blood pressure, make proteins and DNA, and turn food into energy. You’ll get magnesium from almonds, cashews, spinach, soybeans, avocado, and whole grains.


Potassium is one of the most important minerals in the body. It helps regulate fluid balance, muscle contractions and nerve signals. What’s more, a high-potassium diet may help reduce blood pressure and water retention, protect against stroke and prevent osteoporosis and kidney stones.Sep 9, 2017


It does a lot of things, like fighting off infections and helping your thyroid gland work. Most people get enough from what they eat, including meat, bread, and eggs. Too much can cause brittle nails, nausea, and irritability. Just four Brazil nuts could put you at your daily limit for selenium! Selenium is a powerful mineral that is essential for the proper functioning of your body. It plays a critical role in metabolism and thyroid function and helps protect your body from damage caused by oxidative stress.Aug 20, 2019


Without it, you couldn’t taste and smell. Your immune system needs it, and it helps cuts, scrapes, and sores heal. It may help you keep your sight as you get older. While you can get zinc from plant sources like sesame and pumpkin seeds, chickpeas, lentils, and cashews, it’s easier for your body to absorb it from animal foods, such as oysters, beef, crab, lobster, and pork.


Antioxidants are substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage by counteracting free radicals— chemicals that can harm cells. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins A, C, and E; beta carotene; lycopene; and selenium. Antioxidants have been credited with a number of health benefits ranging from reducing the signs of aging to preventing certain cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. Although antioxidants naturally found in fruits, vegetables, and grains may help to prevent certain diseases, research has not shown that high doses of antioxidant supplements prevent disease.2

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

This is an antioxidant your body makes, and you can get more of it in pill form. People try to use CoQ10 to fight migraines, protect the heart, and improve symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. But the research on whether it works is limited and conflicting. Side effects include insomnia and upset stomach, but they’re usually very mild. CoQ10 can interact with blood thinners and insulin treatments, so check with your doctor before taking it.



Arginine is an amino acid in foods that contain protein, like meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes. A nutritious diet supplies about 4 to 5 grams a day. Supplement sellers claim that taking larger amounts of arginine in supplements improves performance, partly because the body converts it into nitric oxide, which expands blood vessels and increases blood flow. Increased blood flow helps deliver oxygen and nutrients to exercising muscle and speeds up the removal of waste products that cause muscle fatigue


Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential nutrients — they’re proteins found in food. Your muscles “burn” these amino acids for energy.

The specific amino acids that make up the branched-chain amino acids are leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The term “branched-chain” refers to their chemical structure.

Why do people take branched-chain amino acids?

Athletes may take oral supplements of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) to try to help with recovery from workouts and enhance athletic performance.

Studies suggest that BCAAs may prevent muscle breakdown during exercise. But they are not likely to help with athletic performance.

People also take BCAAs as medicine to try to treat problems such as:

  • Muscle wasting
  • Chronic loss of appetite
  • Certain brain disorders

In some cases, health care providers may deliver them intravenously (by IV).

Although more research is needed, BCAAs have been studied and may:

  • Improve appetite in people who are malnourished or have cancer
  • Improve symptoms related to hepatic encephalopathy or tardive dyskinesia

It is too early to prove whether BCAAs are helpful for diabetes or an inherited form of autism spectrum disorder.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

An amino acid neurotransmitter in the brain whose primary function is to inhibit the firing of nerve cells


(symbol Gly or G;[5] /ˈɡlaɪsiːn/)[6] is an amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain. It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2CH2COOH. Glycine is one of the proteinogenic amino acids. It is encoded by all the codons starting with GG (GGU, GGC, GGA, GGG). Glycine is integral to the formation of alpha-helices in secondary protein structure due to its compact form. For the same reason, it is most abundant amino acid in collagen triple-helices. Glycine is also an inhibitory neurotransmitter – interference with its release within the spinal cord (such as during a Clostridium tetani infection) can cause spastic paralysis due to uninhibited muscle contraction.

Glycine is a colorless, sweet-tasting crystalline solid. It is the only achiral proteinogenic amino acid. It can fit into hydrophilic or hydrophobic environments, due to its minimal side chain of only one hydrogen atom. The acyl radical is glycyl


(symbol Gln or Q)[3] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Its side chain is similar to that of glutamic acid, except the carboxylic acid group is replaced by an amide. It is classified as a charge-neutral, polar amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body’s demand for glutamine increases, and glutamine must be obtained from the diet.[4][5] It is encoded by the codons CAA and CAG.

In human blood, glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid.[6]

The dietary sources of glutamine includes especially the protein-rich foods like beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, Brussels sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso

Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions:

On the level of tissue, glutamine plays a role in maintaining the normal integrity of the intestinal mucosa.[12] but randomised trials provide no evidence of any benefit of nutritional supplementation


(symbol His or H)[2] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated –NH3+ form under biological conditions), a carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated –COO form under biological conditions), and an imidazole side chain (which is partially protonated), classifying it as a positively charged amino acid at physiological pH. Initially thought essential only for infants, longer-term studies have shown it is essential for adults also.[3] It is encoded by the codons CAU and CAC.

Histidine was first isolated by German physician Albrecht Kossel and Sven Hedin in 1896.[4] It is also a precursor to histamine, a vital inflammatory agent in immune responses. The acyl radical is histidyl Leucine (symbol Leu or L)[2] is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. Leucine is an α-amino acid, meaning it contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO form under biological conditions), and a side chain isobutyl group, making it a non-polar aliphatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it: it must be obtained from the diet. Human dietary sources are foods that contain protein, such as meats, dairy products, soy products, and beans and other legumes. It is encoded by the codons UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, and CUG.

Like valine and isoleucine, leucine is a branched-chain amino acid. The primary metabolic end products of leucine metabolism are acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate; consequently, it is one of the two exclusively ketogenic amino acids, with lysine being the other.[3] It is the most important ketogenic amino acid in humans.[4]p. 101

Leucine and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid, a minor leucine metabolite, exhibit pharmacological activity in humans and have been demonstrated to promote protein biosynthesis via the phosphorylation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)

Lysine (symbol Lys or K)

[1] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO form under biological conditions), and a side chain lysyl ((CH2)4NH2), classifying it as a basic, charged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid. It is encoded by the codons, AAA and AAG. Like almost all other amino acids, the α-carbon is chiral and lysine may refer to either enantiomer or a racemic mixture of both. For the purpose of this article, lysine will refer to the biologically active enantiomer L-lysine, where the α-carbon is in the S configuration.

The human body cannot synthesise lysine, so it is essential in humans and must be obtained from the diet. In organisms that synthesise lysine, it has two main biosynthetic pathways, the diaminopimelate and α-aminoadipate pathways, which employ different enzymes and substrates and are found in different organisms. Lysine catabolism occurs through one of several pathways, the most common of which is the saccharopine pathway.

Lysine plays several roles in humans, most importantly proteinogenesis, but also in the crosslinking of collagen polypeptides, uptake of essential mineral nutrients, and in the production of carnitine, which is key in fatty acid metabolism. Lysine is also often involved in histone modifications, and thus, impacts the epigenome. The ε-amino group often participates in hydrogen bonding and as a general base in catalysis. The ε-ammonium group (NH3+) is attached to the fourth carbon from the α-carbon, which is attached to the carboxyl (C=OOH) group.[2]

Due to its importance in several biological processes, a lack of lysine can lead to several disease states including defective connective tissues, impaired fatty acid metabolism, anaemia, and systemic protein-energy deficiency. In contrast, an overabundance of lysine, caused by ineffective catabolism, can cause severe neurological issues.

Lysine was first isolated by the German biological chemist Ferdinand Heinrich Edmund Drechsel in 1889 from the protein casein in milk.[3] He named it “lysin“.[4] In 1902, the German chemists Emil Fischer and Fritz Weigert determined lysine’s chemical structure by synthesising it.

Proline (symbol Pro or P)

[4] is a proteinogenic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated NH2+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO form under biological conditions), and a side chain pyrrolidine, classifying it as a nonpolar (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid. It is non-essential in humans, meaning the body can synthesise it from the non-essential amino acid L-glutamate. It is encoded by all the codons starting CC (CCU, CCC, CCA, and CCG).

Proline is the only proteinogenic amino acid with a secondary amine, in that the alpha-amino group is attached directly to the main chain, making the α carbon a direct substituent of the side chain

is one of the two amino acids that do not follow along with the typical Ramachandran plot, along with glycine. Due to the ring formation connected to the beta carbon, the ψ and φ angles about the peptide bond have fewer allowable degrees of rotation. As a result, it is often found in “turns” of proteins as its free entropy (ΔS) is not as comparatively large to other amino acids and thus in a folded form vs. unfolded form, the change in entropy is smaller. Furthermore, proline is rarely found in α and β structures as it would reduce the stability of such structures, because its side chain α-N can only form one hydrogen bond.

Additionally, proline is the only amino acid that does not form a blue/purple colour when developed by spraying with ninhydrin for uses in chromatography. Proline, instead, produces an orange/yellow colour


(symbol Ser or S)[3][4] is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH+

3 form under biological conditions), a carboxyl group (which is in the –COO

form in physiological conditions), and a side chain consisting of a hydroxymethyl group, classifying it as a polar amino acid. It can be synthesised in the human body under normal physiological circumstances, making it a nonessential amino acid. It is encoded by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC


Overview Information

Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid, but it is often referred to as an amino acid, a chemical that is a required building block of protein. Taurine is found in large amounts in the brain, retina, heart, and blood cells called platelets. The best food sources are meat and fish.


(symbol Tyr or Y)[1] or 4-hydroxyphenylalanine is one of the 20 standard amino acids that are used by cells to synthesize proteins. It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group. The word “tyrosine” is from the Greek tyrós, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese.[2][3] It is called tyrosyl when referred to as a functional group or side chain. While tyrosine is generally classified as a hydrophobic amino acid, it is more hydrophilic than phenylalanine.[4] It is encoded by the codons UAC and UAU in messenger RNA

Valine (symbol Val or V)[3] is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH3+ form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO form under biological conditions), and a side chain isopropyl group, making it a non-polar aliphatic amino acid. It is essential in humans, meaning the body cannot synthesize it: it must be obtained from the diet. Human dietary sources are foods that contain protein, such as meats, dairy products, soy products, beans and legumes. It is encoded by all codons starting with GU (GUU, GUC, GUA, and GUG).

Like leucine and isoleucine, valine is a branched-chain amino acid. In sickle-cell disease, a single glutamic acid in β-globin is replaced with valine. Because valine is hydrophobic, whereas glutamic acid is hydrophilic, this change makes the hemoglobin prone to abnormal aggregation.



/ˈkəʊliːn/[3] occurs as a cation that forms various salts (X in the depicted formula is an undefined counteranion).[4] Choline is a necessary nutrient for humans and many other animals. To maintain health, it must be obtained from the diet as choline or as choline phospholipids, like phosphatidylcholine. Humans and most animals make choline de novo, but production is insufficient in humans and most species. Choline is often not classified as a vitamin, but as a nutrient with an amino acid-like metabolism.[2]

Symptomatic choline deficiency is very rare in humans. It causes fatty liver and muscle damage. Excessive 8–20 gram daily doses of choline can cause low blood pressure, diarrhea and fish-like body odor due to trimethylamine, which forms in its metabolism.[5]

Plenty of choline and choline phospholipids can be found in hen egg yolk. After eggs, significant amounts occur in certain grains and meats, especially organ meats. Vegetables, fruits and especially fats, like cooking oils, are often not good choline sources.[5][6]

In most animals, choline phospholipids are necessary components in cell membranes, in the membranes of cell organelles and VLDL. Choline is also needed to produce acetylcholine and trimethylglycine. Latter also contributes to the production of S-adenosyl methionine. Choline also has other functions


This yellow-orange spice may help tame inflammation, which is part of a wide variety of conditions. It’s not yet clear if turmeric thwarts any particular health problems. As a supplement, it’s sometimes labeled as curcumin, which is one of the active ingredients in turmeric that has been the focus of scientific studies. Up to 8 grams per day is considered safe. And it’s fine to add the spice to your foods.


People take this to try to ease nausea brought on by surgery, chemotherapy, or motion sickness. And sometimes it’s used to treat arthritis or other joint pain.


Some people take this because they hope it will slow aging. Others take it for diabetes, to boost immunity, or to help with sex. But it may lead to a drop in blood sugar, so it can cause issues for people with diabetes. You also shouldn’t take it if you take blood thinners.

  1. Iron: dietary supplement fact sheet. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements website. Accessed March 9, 2015.
  2. Antioxidants and Health: An Introduction. National Institutes of Health National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website. Updated November 2013.Accessed March 3, 2015.
  3. Vitamin A: fact sheet for consumers. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements website. Accessed March 3, 2015.
  4. Douglas RM, Hemila H, Chalker E, Treacy B. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(3):CD000980.